ab, ā 'from'
absum, abesse, āfuī, āfūtūrus 'to be away, absent'
ad 'toward, to (+ acc)'
addūcō, addūcere, addūxī, adductum 'to lead, bring; to prompt, induce'
adficiō, adficere, adfēcī, adfectum 'to treat, manage; to influence; to attack, weaken (variant of ”afficiō”)'
ager, agrī m 'field'
alius, alia, aliud 'other, another'
alter, altera, alterum 'the other, the second; the one… the other (alter… alter)'
altissimus, altissima, altissimum 'highest; very high'
angustus, angusta, angustum 'narrow, strait; close, contracted, small'
animus, animī m 'mind, sould; will, courage'
appellō, appellāre, appellāvī, appellātum 'to call'
apud 'at, by, near, among; chez (at the house of) (+ acc)'
Aquītānī, Aquītānōrum m 'Aquitanians'
Aquītānia, Aquītāniae f 'Aquitaine'
arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitrātus sum 'to judge; to witness, observe; to believe, think'
atque 'and; nevertheless; as, than'
attingō, attingere, attigī, attāctum 'to come in contact with, touch; assault, attack; approach'
auctōritās, auctōritātis f 'credibility, prestige; influence, authority; advice'
audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum 'to hear, listen to'
aut 'or'
autem 'but; while, however; moreover, and; on the other hand'


Belgae, Belgārum f 'Belgae (a group of tribes in northern Gaul)'
bellandus, bellanda, bellandum 'which is to be fought'
bellum, bellī n 'war'


capiō, capere, cēpī, captum 'to capture, seize, take; take on; take in, understand'
carrus, carrī m 'wagon'
causa, causae f 'cause, reason'
Celtae, Celtārum f 'Celts'
cīvitās, cīvitātis f 'a city and all external territory; kingdoms, city-states'
commeō, commeāre, commeāvī, commeātum 'to visit, travel to'
coniūrātiō, coniūrātiōnis f 'swearing together; conspiracy, plot'
cōnsul, cōnsulis m 'consul'
contendō, contendere, contendī, contentum 'to hurry; to stretch; to compare; to extent; to fight, contend against'
continenter 'unbroken; continuously; repeatedly'
contineō, continēre, continuī, contentum 'to hold/keep together; surround; enclose, bound; detain; check, stop; comprise, involve'
cōpia, cōpiae f 'supply; abundance; (pl) troops, forces'
cotīdiānus, cotīdiāna, cotīdiānum 'daily, everyday; ordinary'
cultus, cultūs m 'cultivating; culture; style of dress'
cum 'with (+ abl)'
cupiditās, cupiditātis f 'desire; cupidity, avarice, greed'
cupidus, cupida, cupidum 'eager, passionate; greedy; wanton, lecherous'


'of, about; from, away from (+ abl)'
dictum, dictī n 'word, saying; proverb; verse; order'
diēs, diēī m 'day; daytime'
differō, differre, distulī, dīlātum 'to spread, disperse, separate; to distract, disturb'
dītissimus, dītissima, dītissimum 'richest; very rich'
dīvido, dīvidere, dīvīsī, dīvīsum 'to divide, separate'
dolor, dolōris m 'pain; anguish, greef; indignation, anger'
dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductum 'to lead'
dux, ducis m 'leader'


effēminandus, effēminanda, effēminandum 'emasculated'
et 'and'
etiam 'and also, furthermore'
ex 'out of, from (+ abl)'
exeō, exīre, exiī, exitum 'to exit, depart; to avoid, evade; to escape'
extrēmus, extrēma, extrēmum 'situated/occurring at the end; extreme in degree'


facilius 'easier (comparative of ”facile”)'
faciō, facere, fēcī, factum 'to do; to make'
ferē 'nearly, almost; closely, entirely; generally'
fidēs, fideī f 'faith, belief; trust; loyalty'
fīnis, fīnis m 'end; limit, border; (pl) boundaries, territory'
fīnitimus, fīnitima, fīnitimum 'bordering upon, adjoining, adjacent; concerning (+dat)'
flūmen, flūminis n 'river'
fortissimus, fortissima, fortissimum 'strongest, very strong; bravest, very brave'
fortitūdō, fortitūdinis f 'strength, force; fortitude; bravery'


Gallia, Galliae f 'Gaul'
Gallus, Gallī m 'a Gaul'
Garumna, Garumnae f 'the river Garumna '
Germānus, Germānī m 'a person from a Germanic people'
gerō, gerere, gessī, gestum 'to carry, bear'
glōria, glōriae f 'glory, fame'


habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum 'to have; own; possess; retain; conduct; regard, consider; accept'
Helvētius, Helvētiī m 'a member of the Helvetii'
Hispānia, Hispāniae f 'Iberia'
hōc 'hither (+ dat); for this reason (+ acc)'
homō, hominis m 'man'
hūmānitās, hūmānitātis f 'humanity; kindness'


imperium, imperiī n 'the empire, state; right or power to command; military authority'
importō, importāre, importāvī, importātum 'to bring (in)'
in 'in (+ abl); to (+ acc)'
incolō, incolere, incolui 'to cultivate; to dwell, inhabit'
indūcō, indūcere, indūxī, inductum 'to lead; to bring forward'
īnferior, īnferius 'lower; below; subsequent, latter'
īnferō, īnferre, intulī, illātum 'to carry, bring (forward); to set fire to; to bury; to advance'
initium, initiī n 'beginning; (pl) rites, mysteries'
institūtum, institūtī n 'custom, principle'
inter 'between, among; during, while (+ acc)'
ipse, ipsa, ipsum 'himself, herself, itself, the very, the actual'
is, ea, id 'he, she, it; this, that'
iūmentum, iūmentī m 'draft animal; vehicle drawn by such animals'
Iūra, Iūrae f 'the Jura Mountains'


lacus, lacūs m 'lake, pond; tank, tub'
lātē 'broadly, widely'
lātissimus, lātissima, lātissimum 'widest; very wide/spacious'
lātitūdō, lātitūdinis f 'breadth, width, latitude'
Lemannus, Lemannī m 'the Geneva Lake'
lēx, lēgis f 'law, contract, principle'
lingua, linguae f 'language'
locus, locī m 'place, spot; a passage of literature; (pl. neut.) a region or general geographic area'
longē 'a long time'
longissimē 'for a long period of time'
longitūdō, longitūdinis f 'length, longitude; long duration'


magnus, magna, magnum 'big, large'
Mārcus, Mārcī m 'Marcus (a name); Mark'
Mātrona, Matronae f 'the river Matrona'
maximus, maxima, maximum 'greatest'
mercātor, mercātōris m 'merchant'
Messāla, Messālae m 'Messala/Messalla (a Roman cognomen)'
mīlle, mīlle n 'thousand (1000)'
minimē 'least of all, very little; not at all'
minus 'less (comparative of ”paulum”)'
mōns, montis m 'mountain'
multitūdō, multitūdinis f 'a great number, multitude; (of people) a great number of people, crowd'


nātūra, nātūrae f 'nature, quality; character, temperament; the natural world'
nōbilissimus, nōbilissima, nōbilissimum 'most noble'
nōbilitās, nōbilitātis f 'celebrity, fame; nobility; nobleness'
nōmen, nōminis n 'name'
noster, nostra, nostrum 'our'
numerus, numerī m 'number'


obtineō, obtinēre, obtinuī, obtentum 'to have; to preserve, keep; to assert, show; to gain, obtain; to prevail, last, stand'
occāsus, occāsūs m 'setting (of the sun etc.); west'
ōceanus, ōceanī m 'ocean, sea'
omnis, omne 'whole, all'
Orgetorīx, Orgetorīgis m 'Orgetorix (a wealthy aristocrat among the Helvetii)'
oriēns, orientis m 'daybreak, dawn, sunrise; east'
orior, orīrī, ortus sum 'to rise; to appear; to be born, come to exist'


pars, partis f 'part'
passus, passūs m 'step; pace; pace (a Roman unit of length equal to five Roman feet)'
pateō, patēre, patuī 'to be open; to be accessible; to be exposed; to increase or extend'
perfacile 'very easily; very willingly'
persuādeō, persuādēre, persuāsī, persuāsum 'to persuade (+ dat)'
pertineō, pertinēre, pertinuī 'to extend; to belong; to tend to'
Pīsō, Pīsōnis m 'Piso (a Roman cognomen)'
possum, posse, potuī 'to be able'
potior, potīrī, potītus sum 'to obtain; to grasp; to seize (+ abl/gen)'
praecēdō, praecēdere, praecessī, praecessum 'to precede; to surpass'
praestō, praestāre, praestitī, praestitum 'to stand before; to excel; to provide, supply'
prō 'for; on behalf of; before; in front of; about (+ abl)'
proelium, proeliī n 'battle, combat'
prohibeō, prohibēre, prohibuī, prohibitum 'to hold back; to forbid; to keep, preserve'
proptereā 'therefore'
prōvincia, prōvinciae f 'province'
proximus, proxima, proximum 'nearest, next'
puer, puerī m 'boy'
Pȳrēnaeus, Pȳrēnaea, Pȳrēnaeum 'Pyrenean (i.e. the Pyrenees)'


quā 'on/at which side/place; (in so far) as; in what way, how'
quam 'in what (which) way/degree; how much; as; than'
quī, quae, quod 'who, that, which'
quod 'which; because; until'
quoque 'also'


rēgnum, rēgnī n '(royal) power, control, reign; kingship, royalty'
reliquus, reliqua, reliquum 'remaining'
rēs, reī f 'thing, object, matter; state, republic'
Rhēnus, Rhēnī m 'the river Rhine; the river Reno'
Rhodanus, Rhodanī m 'the river Rhône'


saepe 'often'
'(acc. refl. pn.) himself, herself, itself'
septentriō, septentriōnis m 'Ursa Major; Ursa Minor; the north'
Sēquana, Sēquanae f 'the river Sequana'
sōl, sōlis m 'sun'
speciēs, speciēī f 'seeing, view; spectacle, sight; appearance; semblance; show, display'
spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātum 'to watch, observe; to test; to consider'
sum, esse, fuī, futūrum 'to be'
suus, sua, suum '(possessive, reflexive) his, her, its, their (own)'


tertius, tertia, tertium 'third'
tōtus, tōta, tōtum 'whole, all; all together'
trāns 'across, beyond (+ acc)'
trēs 'three'


vagor, vagārī, vagātus sum 'to ramble, wander; to waver'
vergō, vergere 'to bend, turn'
virtūs,virtūtis f 'virtue'
undique 'from all sides; all over; utterly, completely'
ūnus, ūna, ūnum 'one'
ut '(so) that, in order to; although'